It is through research studies that we know uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of vision impairment globally and the second leading cause of blindness How does research help us provide eye care services? Our research helps to quantify the nature and extent of vision impairment as well as the associated economic and quality of life impacts. Research defines the type and scale of problems we aim to fix, guiding development strategies, program priorities and project design.Once programs are established, ongoing research evaluates the effectiveness of our methods and the scale of our impact, enabling iterative project design, and improving eye care outcomes worldwide. Ongoing research ensures we are doing the right things to improve eye care and reduce poverty.Our research teams work to engage with communities to ensure that studies are appropriate for, and produce results relevant to, each community. Related Stories Diabetes related vision problems a concern in PNG capital October 30, 2018 Brien Holden Foundation School eye health the answer to childhood blindness – bulletin of who study October 4, 2018 Brien Holden Foundation What does our research focus on? Our research builds our knowledge of vision impairment in different locations and evaluates every program we implement. Study types, and completed examples, include: Epidemiology Health Economics Operational Research Qualitative Studies Epidemiology Rapid assessment of refractive errors (RARE) studiesE.g. Eritrea; Ghana; South Africa; Tanzania; UgandaRapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) studiesE.g. Mozambique; South AfricaRefractive error studies in children (RESC)E.g. Ghana; VietnamPresbyopia studiesE.g. Argentina; NicaraguaCombination studiesE.g. Colombia prevalence of uncorrected refractive error among children; Colombia prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, presbyopia and spectacle coverageTrachoma mappingE.g. Papua New GuineaGlobal systematic reviews, meta-analyses and modellingE.g. Myopia prevalence; Myopic macular degeneration prevalence; Presbyopia prevalenceOcular morbidity studiesE.g. Vietnam, Pakistan and MalawiPNG has one of the highest rates of blindness in the worldRead more… Health Economics Productivity studiesE.g. War on poverty study in South Africa; Work productivity study in South AfricaBurden, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility studiesE.g. Global productivity lost to uncorrected refractive error; Global cost of fixing uncorrected refractive error; Global productivity lost to uncorrected presbyopiaQuality of life and productivity gains follow near vision correctionRead more… Operational Research Models of vision care studiesE.g. Benefits of integrated school eye health vs vertical school eye health program in NigeriaE.g. 3-D printed spectacles in Australia; Models of vision care study in AustraliaE.g. Willingness to pay for spectacles in Cambodian adults; Willingness to pay for spectacles in Cambodian childrenE.g. Effectiveness of teacher-led school-based eye health programs in Tanzania and VietnamAssessments of workforce trainingE.g. Assessment of refraction training in Cambodia; Regional models and workforce training in AustraliaOutcome and effectiveness studiesE.g. Vision centre effectiveness studies in Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka;E.g. Cataract outcomes in NigeriaE.g. East Africa child eye health monitoring exercise in Kenya, Tanzania and UgandaE.g. Assessment of quality of refractive care in VietnamE.g. Service quality improvement study in AustraliaOptometry development assessmentsE.g. Malawi, Mozambique, VietnamLow vision services situation analysesE.g. Papua New GuineaMzuzu University graduates report on experience as optometristsRead more… Qualitative Studies Quality of life studiesE.g. Papua New Guinea, South AfricaKnowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) studiesE.g. Papua New Guinea, VietnamPatient experience of eye health services studiesE.g. Australia, ChinaAccess to servicesE.g. CambodiaE.g. Spectacle uptake in vision centres in MalawiSpectacle compliance studiesE.g. Malawi, NigeriaHealth promotion in schools improves eye health ‘literacy’ in childrenRead more… "Uncorrected vision impairment is a major global public health issue. The prevalence of both myopia (short-sightedness) and presbyopia (aging sight) are increasing dramatically worldwide. Research is important in determining the magnitude and causes of ocular problems and guiding how we effectively address these challenges. Community-level eye health education and promotion is crucial for uptake of services including early identification and treatment of avoidable causes of vision impairment. " Global Figures and Statistics The World Health Organization estimates that at least 2.2 billion people have a vision impairment or blindness, of whom at least 1 billion have a vision impairment that could have been prevented or has yet to be addressed1Of the 1 billion people the WHO estimate to have unaddressed vision impairment:124 million are vision impaired due to distance uncorrected refractive error2826 million are vision impaired due to uncorrected presbyopia (an age-related difficulty of focusing on near objects)3That is, most vision impairment exists simply because people cannot access a reliable eye examination and appropriate spectacles1,2,380% of all vision impairment globally is considered avoidable1,290% of vision impaired people live in low-resource settings1,2,3Vision impairment from uncorrected myopia cost the global economy US$244 billion in lost productivity in 20154 References World Health Organization. World Report on Vision. (World Health Organization, 2019).Flaxman et al. Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990–2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Global Health. 2017;5(12):e1221-34Fricke TR, Tahhan N, Resnikoff S, et al. Global Prevalence of Presbyopia and Vision Impairment from Uncorrected Presbyopia. Ophthalmology 2018;125(10):1492–9.Naidoo KS, Fricke TR, Frick KD, et al. Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of myopia: systematic review, meta-analysis and modelling. Ophthalmology. 2019;126:338-46.